Thank you for attending the Summit on the Prevention of Campus Sexual Assault!
Speaker presentations will be posted in the coming weeks.
- Click here to view the Summit Twitter story (#IPCSUMMIT2018).
CONTINUING EDUCATION CREDITS
The University of Michigan Medical School is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School designates this live activity for a maximum of 7 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Michigan Medicine Department of Social Work is an approved provider with the Michigan Social Work Continuing Education Collaborative, Provider #MICEC 0056. This program has been approved for a maximum of 7.0 continuing education clock hours.
The University of Michigan Medical School is approved by the American Psychological Association to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. The University of Michigan Medical School maintains responsibility for this program and its content. This activity has been approved for 5.75 CE credits for psychologists.
Sessions approved for continuing education for psychologists:
- Morning Session: Campus Sexual Assault: Overview, Scope of the Problem, and Risk Factors – 2.75 CE
- Afternoon Session: Diverse Populations and Interventions for Campus Sexual Assault Prevention - 3.0 CE
Learners will be able to:
- Use information regarding the prevalence and epidemiology of campus sexual assault to enhance screening efforts in their practices
- Identify key risk factors for and populations at risk for sexual assault among college students in their practice
- Recommend evidence-based interventions for prevention of campus sexual assault
The target audience for this event includes: practitioners in the sexual assault field (physicians, social workers, psychologists, other public health professionals), researchers, faculty, and campus stakeholders, including students.
2018 MICHIGAN MEETING, MAY 3-5
Following the conclusion of the U-M Injury Prevention Center Summit on May 2, the 2018 Michigan Meeting will take place at Rackham Graduate School. Ending Gendered Violence in School, Work, and Life: Critical Conversations at the Interasection of Therory and Practice will focus on the diverse forms and contexts of gender-based violence among adolescence and emerging adults. This meeting will be synergistic with the U-M IPC Summit on the primary prevention of campus sexual assault. Click here for more information on the 2018 Michigan Meeting. Questions? Contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Agenda at a Glance
Dr. Mark S. Schlissel is the 14th president of the University of Michigan and the first physician-scientist to lead the institution. He became president in July 2014.
President Schlissel previously was provost of Brown University, where he was responsible for all academic programmatic and budgetary functions within Brown's schools and colleges, as well as the libraries, research institutes and centers.
A graduate of Princeton University (A.B., summa cum laude, 1979, Biochemical Sciences), he earned both M.D. and Ph.D. degrees at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (1986, Physiological Chemistry). He did his residency training in internal medicine at Hopkins Hospital and conducted postdoctoral research as a Bristol-Myers Cancer Research Fellow under David Baltimore at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Whitehead Institute.
President Schlissel began his career as a faculty member at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1991, where he earned a number of awards and fellowships for his research and teaching. He moved to the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California–Berkeley in 1999 as associate professor, advancing to full professor in 2002. He taught undergraduate and graduate courses in immunology as well as a large introductory course in biology for life science majors.
His research has focused on the developmental biology of B lymphocytes, the cell type in the immune system that secretes antibodies. His work has contributed to a detailed understanding of genetic factors involved in the production of antibodies and how mistakes in that process can lead to leukemia and lymphoma. He is the author or coauthor of over 100 scientific papers and has trained 21successful doctoral candidates in his lab.
He was UC-Berkeley’s dean of biological sciences in the College of Letters & Science and held the C.H. Li Chair in Biochemistry until his appointment as Brown’s provost in 2011. He served as vice chair of the Molecular and Cell Biology Department from 2002-07.
Nationally, he has served as member and chair of the Immunobiology Study Section at the National Institutes of Health and on the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Scientific Review Board.
President Schlissel was elected to the American Society of Clinical Investigators in 1998 and the American Association of Physicians in 2013. He has been a member of the American Association of Immunologists since 1992 and was named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2013. He has helped organize major international scientific meetings and is a frequent seminar speaker at universities through the United States.
A native of Brooklyn, N.Y., President Schlissel is married to Monica Schwebs, an environmental and energy lawyer. They have four grown children.
Congresswoman Debbie Dingell represents Michigan’s 12th District in the U.S. House of Representatives, where she has made it a priority to be a voice for the Midwest on issues that matter most to working families. A member of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Debbie is a leader on efforts to grow manufacturing, improve access to quality affordable health care, support seniors and veterans and protect the Great Lakes. Recognized as one of the 25 hardest-working Members of Congress, Debbie is focused on forging bipartisan solutions that support Michigan’s families and economy, including improving long-term care and ushering in the future of the American auto industry. Before being elected to Congress, Debbie worked in the auto industry for more than three decades, where she was President of the General Motors (GM) Foundation and a senior executive responsible for public affairs. She was also Chairman of the Wayne State University (WSU) Board of Governors, and continues to fight to make education more affordable and accessible in Congress.
Sue Snyder has long been a supporter of Michigan’s families. As first lady, she has dedicated herself to causes focused on the health, safety, and overall wellness of the state’s women, children and students.
Most recently, she became an advocate for campus sexual assault awareness and prevention by launching the “Inform. Empower. Prevent. Let’s End Campus Sexual Assault” initiative, with the goal of making Michigan the leader in addressing this sensitive but important issue.
Through her initiative, Snyder has helped secure $1.6 million in state grant funding for colleges and universities to use for sexual assault awareness and prevention programs on campus. Snyder also created a workgroup to develop a resource handbook for sexual assault survivors, family and friends, and also made these resources available online at www.michigan.gov/campussexualassault. Additionally the first lady has hosted three statewide educational summits to help raise awareness and ultimately prevent campus sexual assault.
In addition to assault prevention, Snyder works closely with Ele’s Place, a healing center for grieving children with locations across the state, and is a Fostering Futures supporter, a program working to provide foster children with the resources needed to pursue higher education. She is also an advocate for multiple organizations highlighting infant safe sleep practices to help end preventable childhood deaths.
As a 14-year breast cancer survivor herself, Snyder is very passionate about working with a variety of cancer awareness and treatment organizations. She believes all women should have access to necessary and often life-saving breast cancer prevention and treatment programs.
Snyder also serves on the board for LightUp, which is an organization that offers programs in an open and supportive environment for individuals with special needs to actively participate within their community.
The Snyders now reside in Ann Arbor where they raised their three children; Jeff, Melissa, and Kelsey.
Mary Sue Coleman is president of the Association of American Universities, which encompasses 62 leading public and private research universities in the United States and Canada. She was president the University of Michigan from 2002-2014, and previously was president of the University of Iowa. She holds a doctorate in biochemistry from the University of North Carolina.
Sarah DeGue, Ph.D. is a Senior Scientist in CDC’s Division of Violence Prevention. Trained as a forensic psychologist, Dr. DeGue’s clinical work and research has addressed the perpetration of violence for nearly 20 years. Her work at CDC today focuses primarily on the development and evaluation of strategies to prevent sexual and teen dating violence perpetration. She earned her Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and her undergraduate degrees in sociology and psychology from the University of Michigan.
Maria Testa is a Senior Research Scientist at the University at Buffalo's Research Institute on Addictions. She has spent over 25 years investigating the role of alcohol in sexual assault and in intimate partner violence. Her research has been funded continuously by the National Institutes of Health since 1992.
Dr. Martie Thompson is a Professor in the Department of Youth, Family, and Community Studies at Clemson University. She received her Ph.D. in community psychology from Georgia State University, completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Emory University, and served as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer in the Division of Violence Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Her research focuses on risk factors and consequences of violence, as well as risk factors for suicidal behavior.
Antonia Abbey, Ph.D. is a Professor of Psychology at Wayne State University with a longstanding interest in women's health and reducing violence against women. Her research interests include understanding the causes and consequences of sexual assault; alcohol’s role in sexual assault; and sexual assault measurement issues. Dr. Abbey has published more than 120 journal articles and book chapters and she has served on a variety of national advisory committees for the National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Justice, and the Department of Defense.
Dr. Heather L. McCauley is a social epidemiologist and Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Development & Family Studies at Michigan State University. Her research focuses on the health impacts of intimate partner violence, sexual assault and reproductive coercion, with emphasis on victimization among marginalized populations (e.g. sexual and gender minorities, foster youth, incarcerated women). Dr. McCauley has authored or co-authored more than 50 peer-reviewed journal publications and has given more than 100 regional and national presentations on her federally-funded work.
Christine Lindquist, PhD, is a senior research sociologist at RTI International. Her research interests and areas of expertise include sexual assault among university women and men, campus climate related to sexual misconduct, intimate partner violence, and workplace sexual harassment. Dr. Lindquist has played key roles on several federally-funded surveys related to sexual misconduct on college campuses, including the Campus Climate Survey Validation Study (CCSVS), the Campus Sexual Assault (CSA) Study, and the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) CSA Study.
Elizabeth Miller is the chief of the Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine and maintains an active research program focused on reducing gender-based violence to improve adolescent health with funding from the National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute of Justice, Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS Office on Women's Health and foundations. Examples of research include a cluster-randomized, controlled trial of a gender-based violence prevention program, funded by the CDC, which involves training coaches to encourage their middle school male athletes to recognize and stop disrespectful and harmful behaviors toward girls (Coaching Boys into Men). Another CDC-funded study involves testing a gender transformative program (addressing healthy masculinity and sexuality) among African American males ages 14-19 in fourteen neighborhoods in Pittsburgh. A college student health center-based brief sexual assault intervention (R01 funded by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) is being tested in a 20-site cluster randomized controlled trial. An R01 funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial of a partner violence intervention based in family planning clinics aimed at reducing unintended pregnancy among 3,600 women ages 16–29.
Charlene Senn is a feminist social psychologist and Canada Research Chair in Sexual Violence at the University of Windsor in Ontario, Canada. She has been an activist and advocate on issues related to men’s violence against women and women’s health for many years. Her research focuses on effective campus sexual violence interventions, particularly those developing women’s capacity to resist sexual assault.
Ann L. Coker is an Endowed Chair in the University of Kentucky’s Center for Research on Violence Against Women. She is earned her PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and serves as a Professor of Epidemiology in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in the UK’s College of Medicine. Dr. Coker serves as a Program Director at UK for the NIH funded Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women Health (BIRCWH) and continues as principal investigator for NIHH and CDC grants focusing on interventions to mitigate or prevent gender-based violence.
Elise Lopez, DrPH, is the Assistant Director of Relationship Violence Programs at The University of Arizona’s College of Public Health. She has worked in public health research and practice since 2004. Her research areas focus on prevention and response to sexual violence, particularly interventions at the situational, environmental, and policy levels.
Robert Freeman is a Program Official in the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health. At NIAAA, he oversees the research portfolios in the epidemiology and prevention of alcohol-related violence and alcohol-related HIV/AIDS risk, as well as several other areas. He is a member of a number of federal panels devoted to violence prevention, including the Federal Interagency Working Group on Teen Dating Violence, the Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention, and the NIHM Suicide Research Consortium; is on the Advisory Board for the National Institute of Justice’s Longitudinal Cohort Study of Interpersonal Violence among College-Aged Men and Women; and has been guest editor of 3 volumes of research on prevention of interpersonal violence published in the journal Violence Against Women.
How frequent is sexual perpetration in college men? A systematic review of reported prevalences from 2000-2016
Purpose: The goal of this study was to systematically review research findings regarding the prevalence of sexual perpetration in college men.
Background: Although approximately 1 in 4 college women report experiencing sexual violence victimization (and most report being victimized by their male peers), the rate of sexual violence perpetration in college men is unknown.
Methods: Empirical studies of male participants published after 1999 (including dissertations) that were available in English, and included a report of sexual perpetration since age 14 (but not only in the past year or less) that were identified in psycINFO or Web of Science databases were included.
Data reduction strategy: Coders independently recorded the prevalence of sexual perpetration, rape, and verbal coercion in each study. Coders also recorded the measurement strategy used to assess the sexual perpetration constructs and administration procedures.
Results: A total of 75 independent samples including 24,823 participants who completed measures of sexual perpetration were included. The prevalence of any level of sexual perpetration ranged widely from 3.3 to 97.7%. The average rate of any level of sexual violence perpetration across studies was 25.2%. The prevalence of rape perpetration ranged from 0.6-33.0%. The rate of verbal coercion ranged from 8.2-73.0%.
Conclusions: The reported frequency of sexual perpetration is highly related to the measurement strategy used. There is greater variability in methods for measuring verbal coercion than for rape.
Innovation and Significance: This study highlights how common sexual violence perpetration is in college men and the need for reliable measurement strategies to learn more about this behavior.
New Developments in Sexual Assault Prevention Efforts: Why Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Matter
Purpose: Primary prevention and risk reduction strategies for reducing sexual assault on college campuses have generally been treated as distinct categories of programming, with greater emphasis placed on primary prevention. However, there is both theoretical justification and measurable benefit to synthesizing primary prevention and risk reduction programming. This poster will present findings from evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection seminar that combines these approaches within a single program.
Methods: Elemental has been rigorously assessed using four years (2012-2015) of program and control group data. Students completed pretest, posttest, 6 week, and 6 month follow-up surveys assessing sexual attitudes and knowledge as well as experiences with assault.
Results: Elemental has been consistently shown to be effective in reducing sexual assault risk. Program effects were both direct, in that participation was associated with lower risk of assault, and mediated, in that participation impacted attitudes and beliefs that are empirically linked to risk of later assault. Analyses demonstrate that program students have a nearly 66% reduction in assault risk relative to control group students.
Conclusions: By combining both primary prevention and risk reduction approaches, Elemental is effective at reducing incidences of assault.
Significance: These findings are significant in the field because they illustrate the benefits of a combined programming approach. Although the field has been focused on primary prevention in recent years, research on Elemental and other similar programs suggests an expanded strategy may be more effective. Importantly, the ACHA has altered programming recommendations to this effect. See, for example: http://www.acha.org/documents/resources/guidelines/Addressing_Sexual_Vio...
Evaluating a Brief Campus Sexual Assault Prevention Program for First-Year College Students
Purpose: Comprehensive strategies for campus-based sexual assault prevention should span multiple levels of social ecology (e.g., individual, peer/partner, organizational, and community) blended with universal, selective, and indicated approaches. Campus-based educational programs are one approach that is often implemented, but rarely evaluated. In this poster, we share evaluation data from a sexual assault prevention program, Relationship Remix, administered on campus to first-year students at University of Michigan. Relationship Remix comprises universal prevention and spans multiple socioecological levels by emphasizing individual values and behavior, including some content on bystander intervention, and being delivered by peers (e.g., trained student volunteers).
Methods/Approach: First-year students attended the 1.5 hour group-delivered program during their first fall semester at a large, public Midwestern university. Students completed web-based surveys immediately before and after attending Relationship Remix. We present data on attitudes and knowledge among 2,305 first-year students who were 55.1% female, 70.7% White, and 90.6% heterosexual.
Results: On 8 of 10 survey questions linked to program content assessing knowledge and attitudes, students reported significantly more favorable responses at post-test. For example, students reported greater awareness of campus resources, ability to define consent, and confidence to communicate with sexual partners.
Conclusion and Significance/Contribution: The findings suggest that Relationship Remix has promising, positive impact on students’ attitudes about consensual sex and prevention of sexual misconduct. Future research should examine behavioral outcomes and the efficacy of this program in reducing sexual misconduct within a holistic multipronged prevention strategies. This study provides key information to inform future campus-based prevention programs.
Impulsivity Moderates the Relationship Between Heavy Drinking and Risk of Sexual Assault Among College Women
Purpose: Heavy alcohol use has been consistently implicated in sexual assault risk (Abbey et al., 2001) but does not consistently prospectively predict sexual assault longitudinally (Gidycz et al., 1995; Parks et al., 2014), and reductions in drinking do not always result in decreases in assault risk (Clinton-Sherrod et al., 2011). Impulsivity might account for these discrepant findings.
Women with a history of assault are more likely to be assaulted if they report higher levels of impulsivity (Messman-Moore et al., 2013); however, no studies have examined how impulsivity and alcohol use interact in predicting sexual assault risk.
Methods: Incoming female college students (n = 483) completed a baseline assessment and were followed over the course of their first year. Moderated logistic regression analyses were run using Hayes’s PROCESS macro for SPSS with baseline peak BAC as the predictor, trait impulsivity as the moderator, and first-year rape (unwanted oral, vaginal, or anal sex due to incapacitation, threats, or use of force) as the outcome. Analyses were restricted to those 327 women who reported consuming alcohol.
Results: Risk of experiencing rape significantly increased as alcohol use increased, but only for women at mean and lower levels of impulsivity.
Conclusion: Women high in impulsivity exhibit an elevated risk of rape regardless of their alcohol use, indicating that they are already engaging in behaviors that likely expose them to greater contextual risk of assault.
Innovation & Significance: Thus, it is imperative that integrated prevention programs target impulsivity and emotion dysregulation as well as alcohol use.
Sexual Violence on College Campuses: Gender Differences in Athletic Identity and Rape Myth Acceptance among Collegiate Student-Athletes
Statement of Purpose: Sexual violence on college campuses is a major public health crisis (Krebs et al., 2016). In contrast, very little research has focused on female student-athletes (Moynihan & Banyard, 2009). This poster will explore the relationship between rape myth acceptance, athletic identity, and responses to bystander programming among student-athletes.
Methods/Approach: Collegiate student-athletes (n=251) from a large Division I university completed online self-report surveys in spring 2017. Measures included the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale Short Form Revised (McMahon & Farmer, 2011), the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (Brewer et al., 1993), and questions about their experiences with the school’s mandated bystander prevention program (modeled after Bringing in the Bystander).
Results: Male student-athletes were significantly more likely to report higher acceptance of rape myths than females (2.00 vs. 1.66), and to agree or strongly agree that the prevention program was useless (33% vs. 19%). There was no significant association between rape myth acceptance and athletic identity.
Conclusions: Results challenge prevailing stereotypes about athletic identity and rape myth acceptance. However, results highlight that male student-athletes had higher acceptance of rape myths and less favorable views of the bystander prevention programming than female student-athletes.
Innovation & Significance to the Field: Findings highlight the importance of modifying prevention programs to better engage male student-athletes, which may in turn lead to increased bystander behaviors on college campuses.
Patient Satisfaction with Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner Services and Post-Assault Resource Utilization at a University Health Center Compared to an Emergency Department
Statement of Purpose: In the United States 1.3 million women experience rape each year, with current estimates of 22 million female rape survivors. Further, 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men experience sexual assault in college. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs were developed in the 1970s to improve care for sexual violence survivors by providing medical forensic exams by specially trained nurses. The purpose of this study is to address a gap in the literature about how the location of SANE exams impacts satisfaction with services and use of post-assault resources.
Methods/Approach: Participants completed satisfaction surveys via Qualtrics following SANE exams at the Emergency Department (ED) (N=49) or a university health center (UHC) (N=9) in the same city from January 2016-April 2018. A second survey about experiences accessing/barriers to utilizing post-assault services was emailed to participants 4-6 weeks post-exam.
Results: Preliminary analyses indicate that patient satisfaction with privacy, healthcare facilities, and SANE providers did not differ between the two settings. College-aged survivors who received UHC services were significantly more likely to seek resources for their additional post-assault healthcare needs than those who received ED services (p=.02).
Conclusions: Survivors found UHC services as satisfactory as services provided at the gold standard ED and were more likely to utilize post-assault healthcare services.
Innovation & Significance to the Field: Incorporation of SANE exams into the UHC provides additional post-assault care options for college-aged survivors who may have more positive long-term health outcomes due to greater likelihood of accessing post-assault healthcare.
Solutions to Sexual Assault and Harassment on one University's Campus
Statement of purpose: Universities require students, faculty, and staff to learn about the particular university’s systems that address sexual assault and sexual harassment. However, the current systems are relatively new and continue to change. The changes in university sexual assault regulation have inspired increased prevention efforts and new sociological research. In this research, I investigate how the governance of sexual assault and harassment has changed at one large, public, Midwestern university from 1972 through 2017.
Methods: The research uses 1972 as the starting point for data collection since Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1974 has become central to the regulation of campus sexual assault and harassment. I conducted a content analysis of articles in two student campus newspapers to construct a history of sexual assault and harassment at the university. The newspapers were coded for mentions of mobilizations, institutionalizations, the discourse on the framing of sexual assault and harassment as problems, and the discourse on the proposed solutions to the problems of sexual assault and harassment.
Conclusions and significance to the field: Preliminary findings indicate that sexual assault interventions, both mobilizations and institutionalizations, correspond with the dominant proposed solutions discourse of each decade. The proposed solutions discourse indicates who has the responsibility to prevent sexual assault, and the onus for prevention shifts over time from women to all individuals on campus, regardless of their gender. Ultimately, the governance of sexual assault and harassment illustrates upheavals in gender politics as well as university systems.
Adapting a Life Skills Application to Address Interpersonal Relationships and Sexual Violence Prevention among College Students
Statement of Purpose: Sexual violence is a public health crisis with 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men experiencing sexual assault in college. There is a need for holistic primary prevention interventions. Past research emphasizes life skills and social competency as approaches that address individuals within their ecological context. We used the ADAPT-ITT model to adapt a pre-existing web-based application (WebApp) previously used in a community setting.
Methods/Approach: A quasi-experimental design was used to conduct a pilot feasibility test of MKit by randomizing two residence halls at one large, public university in the Midwestern United States. The control group (n=139) received the university’s usual programming around sexual violence and healthy relationships. The intervention group (n=122) received the usual programming plus access to MKit. Evaluation of acceptability, feasibility, and safety will be assessed at baseline, 3-months, and 5-months.
Results: The pilot study is currently in progress and analyses will focus on the acceptability, feasibility, and safety of the MKit WebApp.
Conclusions: MKit provides a promising framework to serve as a resource and reinforce messages regarding healthy relationships and sexual violence within the university context.
Innovation & Significance to the Field: By incorporating a holistic life skills approach, the WebApp has the potential to address a wide range of student needs that may impact healthy relationships and sexual violence. Pending the results of this feasibility trial, future work will evaluate the MKit WebApp in a multi-site trial within multiple university contexts.
SafeMD: Establishing a sexual assault awareness and education curriculum for medical students
Background: Sexual assault is a pervasive issue that necessitates address by the medical community, including designing an effective curriculum to provide the knowledge for medical professionals to prevent sexual assault in their communities and provide healthcare to survivors of sexual assault.
Program Description or Study Design: Students at University of Michigan established SafeMD, a peer-led organization that addresses the shortcomings of both curricular and extra-curricular efforts to address sexual assault. To accomplish this mission, we developed education seminars, conducted a needs assessment and established an inter-graduate school alliance centered around sexual assault awareness and education.
Results: To educate our community, SafeMD launched two main programs: Allyhood Training and M1 Orientation. In Allyhood Training, medical students received education about the prevalence of sexual assault, the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner program, and the legal aspects of reporting sexual assault from experts in each field. During M1 orientation, first year medical students were provided with an overview of sexual assault and the resources available to medical students.
SafeMD also conducted a “Needs Assessment” by sending a survey to all preclinical medical students regarding sexual assault education. This allowed students to provide input on areas that both SafeMD and the medical school administration needed to address.
Lastly, SafeMD created an inter-graduate school collaborative known as SafeMichigan that allows for collaboration between graduate students working to improve education about sexual assault in their respective graduate schools.
Lessons Learned: SafeMD’s work has shown the potential for students to organize and improve their own education about sexual assault through peer-led collaboration. It shows student desire to be prepared to address sexual assault during their education and during their profession as a healthcare provider. Further, it shows the potential for collaboration between graduate students to share resources and provide opportunities for inter-school education about sexual assault. SafeMD’s effective training program could be implemented across graduate programs to allow all members of our graduate community to be better prepared to support survivors of sexual assault and reduce the number of passive bystanders on campus.
Future Applications and Next Steps: This work acts as a framework for other medical schools to adopt similar peer-led sexual assault awareness and prevention groups. With further development and assessment of this intervention, future physicians will be able to better support both those in the medical community and patients who have survived sexual assault.
Quantifying the magnitude and potential influence of missing data in campus sexual assault surveys: A systematic review of surveys, 2010-2016
Statement of Purpose. To quantify the amount of missing data in campus sexual assault surveys, and understand how missing data may influence conclusions drawn from the surveys.
Methods. Using the 62 members of the American Association of Universities as a sampling frame, we systematically reviewed 40 campus sexual assault surveys conducted from 2010-2016. We constructed a pseudo-population of the total population targeted across schools, creating records proportional to the respective response rate and reported sexual assault prevalence. We then simulated the effects of 9 scenarios where the prevalence among non-responders differed from responders on overall sexual assault prevalence.
Results. The surveys represented a total female undergraduate population of 317,387 with only 77,966 (24.6%) survey responses. Among responders, 20.4% reported experiences of sexual assault. However, prevalence of sexual assault could theoretically range from 5.0 to 80.4% under extreme assumptions about prevalence in non-responders, with smaller but still significant differences observed with less extreme assumptions.
Conclusions. Missing data are widespread in campus sexual assault surveys. Conclusions drawn from these incomplete data are highly sensitive to assumptions about the sexual assault prevalence among non-responders.
Significance. The prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses is significantly influenced by nonresponse in recent data collection efforts. This study is the first to examine how this prevalence would change when making educated assumptions about non-responders. Quantifying the scope of campus sexual assault is critical for informing campus sexual assault policy and law, the implementation of evidence-based prevention programs, and the provision sufficient campus resources to support survivors.
Sexual assault on college campuses: Literature review and Haddon Matrix gap analysis of intervention research
1. Statement of Purpose: This poster summarizes research on evaluated interventions addressing sexual assault on college campuses in the U.S. and examines the literature using the Haddon Matrix, one of the most widely used frameworks in the injury prevention field.
2. Methods/Approach: A total of 29 peer-reviewed publications between 2001-2016 met the inclusion criteria, are included in the review, and were classified by their prevention phase (before, during, or after an assault), and whether they addressed the victim, the perpetrator or the college environment.
3. Results: Outcomes measured included knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behaviors. Only 11 (38%) studies reported any significant outcomes of their programs. The Bystander model was most widely represented. The Haddon Matrix revealed that few studies have focused on the perpetrator (agent), there were no studies of the physical environment, and the only studies evaluating an intervention targeted at the social environment were Bystander models.
4. Conclusions: More research is needed using methods other than self report as well as longer follow up periods. Interventions that target the perpetrator and outer levels of the socio-ecological model are needed to advance the field and identify high impact interventions.
5. Innovation & Significance to the field: This is the first known study to apply the Haddon Matrix to the public health issue of sexual assault perpetration. Doing so has clearly identified gaps in the current approach to intervention research.
Correlates of Sexual Assault Perpetration Among College Students: The Moderating Role of Mindfulness and Empathy
Aims: Sexual assault has numerous adverse effects, particularly among college students. Drug and alcohol use are co-occurring risk behaviors with sexual assault perpetration. To date, there is little information regarding factors that may reduce the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration. This study examines the role of substance use, mindfulness, and empathy in sexual assault perpetration (completed and attempted) among college youth.
Methods: Data came from a national sample recruited via social media advertisements. This study subsample includes 2,061 emerging adults attending college (18-25 years).
Results: Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, compared to non-perpetrators, those reporting ASA were significantly more likely to binge drink (OR=1.95; 95% CI=1.03-3.68); those with CSA were more likely to be male (OR=1.92; 95% CI=1.33-2.76). Trait mindfulness was negatively associated with ASA (OR=0.96; 95% CI=0.93-1.00) and CSA (OR=0.96; 95% CI=0.94-0.99). Empathy was not associated with ASA nor CSA. Binge drinking and substance use were not associated with CSA in this sample.
Conclusions: This study indicates that there are distinct differences in factors associated with ASA vs. CSA. Addressing binge drinking may mitigate the likelihood of attempted sexual assaults, and mindfulness may be an important factor in interventions to reduce sexual assault perpetration.
Innovation/Significance: This study signifies one of the few to examine individual factors that increase (alcohol) and decrease (mindfulness) the likelihood of sexual violence perpetration. These findings contribute significantly to sexual violence perpetration interventions.
#HowIWillChange: Engaging Boys and Men in the #MeToo Movement
Statement of purpose: This study aimed to assess public discourse about dismantling rape culture via Twitter hashtag #HowIWillChange. #HowIWillChange was started in response to the #MeToo movement and was intended to engage males by asking them to evaluate their role in sustaining rape culture.
Methods: We collected 10% of publicly available tweets containing #HowIWillChange from Twitter’s API (n = 18,000) on October 26, 2017 via NCapture software. We eliminated non-English language tweets, news articles, advertisements, re-tweets, and image-only tweets, resulting in 3,182 tweets for analysis. Researchers met to discuss key themes after coding 10% and 25% of the data. The remainder of the data was coded after key themes had been established.
Results: witters users described 1) actions for; and 2) barriers to combatting rape culture. Actions included confronting toxic masculinity, teaching the next generation, speaking out, and working towards egalitarianism/elevating women. Barriers to changing rape culture included attacking men’s perceived weaknesses, personal refusals to change, sexist or benevolently sexist views, and denial of the existence of rape culture.
Conclusions/Innovation & Significance to the Field: This study provides insight regarding the current perceptions of rape culture following the #MeToo movement, specifically from a platform intended to engage boys and men. Prevention work and bystander interventions on college campuses can emphasize components of psychoeducation about the socialization process of toxic masculinity and sexism, and better equip men to withstand potential criticism for speaking out about violence against women. Further, this discourse highlights the utility of social media for discussing social issues.
What Undergraduates Want in Campus Sexual Assault Prevention Programming: Findings from a Formative Research Study
Statement of Purpose: Campus sexual assault is a prevalent and alarming public health concern. While many school-based sexual assault prevention intervention programs exist, few have strong empirical support in college settings. There is a pressing need for formative research with undergraduates to shape the development of relevant and effective, multi-pronged approaches for preventing campus sexual assault.
Methods/Approach: Full-time undergraduate sophomores at the University of Michigan (U-M) were recruited via registrar emails and campus flyers to participate in audio-recorded, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews (n=19) in Summer/Fall 2016. Participants were asked to provide feedback about desirable characteristics of sexual assault prevention programming, including intervention content, format, and delivery mechanism. Interview audio files were transcribed and codes were generated using thematic analysis. Two trained Research Assistants (RAs) independently coded each theme using NVivo 11.
Results: Participant demographics (47.4% male, 57.9% White/Not Hispanic) resemble campus enrollment statistics. Findings suggest that peer-based programming administered in-person to individuals or small, mixed-gender groups of unfamiliar students is more acceptable to undergraduates than other intervention formats (e.g., delivered in classes). Participants emphasized the importance of new programming providing a forum where students can talk openly and seriously about sexual assault. Peer survivor testimonies and skits were mentioned as potentially effective ways to deliver content.
Conclusions: As part of their sexual assault prevention education, U-M undergraduates welcome opportunities for serious discussions led by relatable peers who understand the dynamics of campus life.
Innovation/Significance: Our findings warrant future studies examining the effectiveness of campus-based, discussion-oriented sexual assault prevention intervention programs.
Artistic Engagement Helps Students Articulate Unique Solutions to Sexual Violence: Implications for Institutional Reform
Statement of Purpose: In 2015, Columbia University developed the Sexual Respect and Community Citizenship Initiative to engage students around campus sexual assault prevention. Students were required to attend educational workshops, watch videos/movies, read articles, or create artistic outputs reflecting viewpoints on consequences of and solutions to sexual assault. We report on the latter.
Methods/Approach: A university-wide committee representing students, faculty, staff, and administrators, including the authors, developed the initiative, “Sexual Respect: Columbia Students Creating Art.” This initiative supported students’ production of artistic outputs to inspire campus sexual assault prevention.
Results: Students submitted 567 art pieces: poetry/prose (306); visual (181); multimedia (24); film/video (19); music (16); performance (14); dance (4); and drama (3). All submissions were showcased online (artsoption.columbia.edu). Select submissions (64) were featured at an Arts Exhibit at Columbia in April 2015, to which all Columbia community members were invited. Students, professional artists, curators, and professors explored prevention of campus sexual assault by contemplating and analyzing artistic creations.
Conclusions: Student artwork inspired new conversations and provided outlets for expressing frustrations, including those about Columbia and the Initiative itself. Students who previously felt silenced found a new voice and healing. These perspectives inspired changes to Columbia’s sexual violence response efforts, like counseling, new student orientation, and student health.
Innovation & Significance: Artistic engagement sparked institutional change supporting sexual respect. Art and performance empowered students with new ways of expressing opinions around emotional issues. Art can powerfully inform campus sexual assault prevention efforts when generated for communities by their own community members.
Addressing Sexual Violence When Dissonance Among Community Members Becomes a Social Norm in Institutions of Higher Education: A Case Study of Columbia University
Statement of Purpose: Sexual violence in higher education fosters an environment of physical, emotional, and social trauma for survivors and bystanders. This poster explores factors that exacerbate distrust and dissonance between administrators and students.
Methods/Approach: This case study focuses on the authors’ experiences at Columbia University, their reflections on institutional policies and initiatives, Columbia student activism (2012-16), and campus news, blog, and opinion publications.
Results: Student publications reveal that sexual violence survivors and allies perceived the University as complacent, condescending, and aggressive. Administrators were perceived to trivialize students’ concerns by using delay tactics and bureaucracy. Specifically, the 2015 Sexual Respect and Community Citizenship Initiative attempted but did not seem to bridge the diverse campus communities trying to address sexual violence. The Initiative, perceived as a top-down approach, required students to participate in trainings and reflections. Many students criticized the Initiative as failing to engage all members of the University community, such as faculty.
Conclusions: Personal reflections and analysis of campus publications can inform sexual assault prevention by revealing a disconnect among a university’s constituencies. This dissonance undermines an institution’s capacity to address sexual violence. We suggest institutional flexibility and respect for students’ grassroots approaches as ways to prevent sexual violence and the injuries it inflicts on entire universities.
Innovation & Significance: Future interventions should consider that sexual violence thrives in inflexible organizations and when community dissonance becomes a social norm. Using community citizenship approaches, addressing structural barriers, and creating frameworks for university-wide, honest discussions may enhance sexual violence prevention efforts.
A retrospective descriptive analysis of SANE records of College-Aged Individuals at a Midwestern Emergency Department from 2002-2017
Statement of Purpose: An estimated 1 in 5 women and 1 in 16 men endure sexual assault during their college career, making rape the most frequent violent crime occurring on campus. Since the 1970s, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs have provided medical treatment and forensic exams to survivors seeking aid. The purpose of this study is: 1) to describe the characteristics of individuals seeking services for sexual assault at an Emergency Department between 2002-2017, and 2) to explore trends related to sexual assault over this 16-year period, including disability status and the presence of drugs/alcohol.
Methods/Approach: We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis of SANE records from 2002-2017 (N = 856) at a large Midwestern university Emergency Department. These data include demographics, characteristics of the assault, description of physical injuries, and evidence collected. Data for college-aged patients (18-24) were analyzed using SPSS.
Results: Analyses are in progress. Preliminary results indicate that a large percentage of survivors’ report their experiences of sexual violence involved drugs and/or alcohol. Additionally, a large proportion of survivors report having a mental and/or physical disability.
Conclusions: Survivors of sexual violence seeking services at Michigan Medicine’s Emergency Department tend to be a vulnerable population, supporting previous research.
Innovation & Significance to the Field: Results from this research further the understanding of college-aged survivors seeking services, which will inform interventions to prevent sexual assault on and around university campuses. Results also point to the need for systematic data collection to inform service provision within healthcare settings and regions.
Understanding male-to-female sexual harassment and aggression in bars and clubs
Statement of Purpose. The highly sexualized culture of bars and clubs where harassment of women is normative and men have heightened concerns about masculinity provides an environment conducive to alcohol-related sexual harassment and aggression (ASHA). Although efforts are being made to address workplace harassment, bars and clubs remain high risk environments for sexual harassment and assault of women. In this poster, we describe our research regarding male-to-female ASHA in bars/clubs.
Methods. We summarize evidence from: 1) follow-up online surveys from groups of women recruited in bar districts; and 2) focus groups with young adult men.
Results. Over 50% of female bargoers reported ASHA on a single night out. Having a lower status position in their peer group was associated with ASHA among women who had consumed 5+ drinks. Male focus group participants indicated that: a) ASHA is normal and acceptable in bars/clubs although clearly recognized as sexual assault elsewhere; b) ASHA stems from mixed signals, misunderstandings, and innocent advances, but is also done to amuse peers and in response to peer pressure; and c) it is mostly women’s responsibility to avoid, prevent or stop ASHA.
Conclusions. Prevention needs to focus on changing men’s normative attitudes and beliefs regarding ASHA, including bar policies to prevent ASHA.
Innovation & Significance. Many students are frequent bargoers; therefore, this research has significant implications for understanding and preventing student sexual victimization. Prevention work needs to address the heteronormative culture of bars that fosters traditional constructs of masculinity and allows sexual harassment and aggression to go unaddressed.
Other People's Problem: An Analysis of Student Conversations about Campus Sexual Misconduct
Statement of Purpose: How do sophomore college students understand sexual violence among their peers?
Methods: This study utilizes interview and focus group data collection from thirty-five total students in 2016.
Results: I find that respondents use long-term monogamous sexual partnerships as another justification for the “me exemption” – a documented phenomenon in which individuals exempt themselves the possibility of experiencing discrimination and victimhood. Not only do individuals exclude themselves as possible victims, they do not consider their partners as possible perpetrators. Next, I am interested in how respondents perceive and talk about sexual assault among their friends and people like them. I find that people extend the “me exemption” even further. Not only do individuals have difficulty narrating their own experiences and their own partners as violent. They also do not unilaterally apply relevant legal labels to their proximate social networks. My data indicates a similar trend among potential perpetrators. People are unlikely to label their friends as “assailants” or their actions as “violent.”
Significance: This paper contributes both a case and theory to the legal consciousness and organizational change literature within sociology. It also extends prior research on sexual violence as a structural problem. Whereas research on sexual harassment within organizations has documented individuals’ narrations of their own experiences, these data indicate how people make sense of sexual violence within their social networks.